Maintaining Relationships in the Remote Work Era

Building Online Businesses

Navigating personal and professional relationships can feel like a high-wire balancing act in this globally interconnected, ever-pixelating world. The era of remote work throws in a unique set of challenges – but also a universe of opportunities. This digital grandstand we are on has not just redefined the four walls of an office but also reshaped the essence of coworking, companionship, and camaraderie. But how do we sustain these relationships when our interactions are funneled through fiber-optic cables and across time zones? As digital nomads and indie hackers, we don’t just adapt; we reinvent, finding new ways to bridge the gap between screens and bring the ‘human’ back into the digital human interaction. This article is your navigational tool through not just surviving, but thriving in maintaining relationships in the remote work era.

Understanding the Challenges of Remote Work Relationships

Remote work has carved a new path in the world of professionals, making it possible to skip those long commutes and make anywhere our home office. This freedom comes with its own set of challenges, though, particularly when it comes to maintaining relationships with colleagues and teams. If the water cooler or coffee machine served as a meeting point, they have now been replaced with virtual meeting rooms and group chats. And when the only interactions we have are through screens, a whole new set of hurdles surfaces.

Looking at the situation from a different lens: back at the physical office, we used to bump into colleagues randomly. Those spontaneous chats we’d have while waiting for our coffees? Those were powerful connectors, generating rapport, empathy, and understanding. Today, each interaction needs to be scheduled. And let’s be honest, how often has a chat about the latest Netflix show happened during a Zoom call?

Then there’s the issue of miscommunication. Without visual clues like body language or tone of voice, textual conversations are subject to misinterpretation, causing unnecessary disputes or tension. This challenge is amplified in multicultural teams where language barriers can come into play, even for that occasional tongue-in-cheek banter.

And let’s not overlook the issue of work-life balance. With work invading our homes, it’s hard for home to not invade our work too. Maybe we delay responses because we’re juggling multiple tasks, or we get snappy after a long day of working at the dining table. All these disturbances can affect professional relationships.

Being digitally distanced also entails the struggle of building trust: one of the core elements for solid relationships. It’s tough to give and receive trust when we can’t gauge reactions, body language or sincerity over a screen.

As we navigate this world of remote work, it’s crucial to recognize these challenges. We need to start addressing these, not just because they might affect work productivity or efficiency, but because at the end of the day, we’re humans craving real connections. Empathy, understanding, and patience are the golden triad that can help us triumph over these challenges, making the remote work era, a truly work-from-anywhere era.

Loss of Informal Communication

While embracing the new normal that remote work brings, we cannot overlook the loss of casual, spontaneous communication. Remember the good old days in the physical workspace, when you and your colleagues could riff on a new idea over shared lunch? Or that ‘aha’ moment spurred by a water cooler conversation? Those precious moments are what we miss when working remotely.

In the remote work era, our interactions are mostly regular team meetings, scheduled 1:1’s, and project updates – all while being conscious that we’re on the digital clock. It’s paradoxical, in a world with technology that supposedly connects us better, we miss those spontaneous, informal moments. These seemingly insignificant interactions actually design the social fabric of the workplace and foster rapport among team members.

“Never underestimate the power of a casual conversation,” It’s surprising how these impromptu discussions can lead to better problem-solving and innovation based on collective information and insight. In a physical environment, these moments happen naturally. However, in a virtual environment, it requires conscious effort.

So, how can we keep these elements alive in the context of remote work? It’s time to get creative about imitating these casual conversations in a digital environment. Virtual coffee breaks, ‘no-work talks’ channels on team chat platforms, playing virtual team games – the choices are countless, each with the potential of nurturing your workplace’s social health.

Interestingly, quite a few organisations have started to facilitate “corridor chats” in virtual spaces. It’s basically a designated chatroom where you can just hang around, and if you spot a colleague online, you can start a conversation just like bumping into each other in the office corridor.

Learning to adapt to this new communication landscape is a challenge but also a necessity as remote work becomes more prevalent. It requires intentional strategies to restore the essence of informal communication. By nurturing these spaces for spontaneous discussions and genuine human connections, we can tackle the isolation that often accompanies the remote work experience.

Recreating this sense of community in the remote work era is an inspiring journey, and every indie hacker at heart understands that where there is a challenge, there is an opportunity. Yes, this journey needs us to redefine routines, embrace technologies, and adapt to changing paradigms, yet the essence of it remains – to stay connected, in words and through emotions, regardless of the physical distance.

Maintaining relationships in the remote work era is not only about new technologies or meeting agendas but also about nurturing the human connection, one casual conversation at a time.

Issues with Digital Communication

In the era of remote work, elements that were once deemed secondary, like digital communication, have suddenly taken center stage. Since we’ve switched out boardrooms for Zoom rooms and coffee chats for Slack threads, it’s pressing to shine a light on the unique set of challenges digital communication presents to our relationships.

For starters, we’ve got to acknowledge that in the world of tweets, texts, and emails, it’s all too easy for our messages to get lost in translation. Without those non-verbal cues – a reassuring smile, a firm handshake, or even an awkward silence – our messages can often come off as cold, unfriendly, or even hostile. It’s what I call the “emotional vacuum” of digital communication, that too frequently leads to misunderstanding.

In the same vein, there’s the challenge of “hyper-communication”. We’re smack in the middle of notification nation where a three-second tweet can spark a three-hour search for the perfect GIF. Or that ‘quick’ email before you hit the hay turns into an all-night work fest. Sound familiar? This overload makes us susceptible to burnouts, and pulls us further away from actual, meaningful connections.

Virtual communication also robs us of a central aspect of human connection – spontaneity. There’s something downright inspiring about organic, on-the-fly conversations and shared experiences. But when your interaction is dependent on Wi-Fi stability and calendar invites, it’s hard to replicate that same spark.

To round it off, there is the issue of ubiquitous availability. The line between professional and personal life is blurrier than it’s ever been. While digital connectivity allows us to ‘plug in’ and access our work from any corner of the world, it also means work can access us 24/7 – invading our downtime and personal relationships.

In light of these challenges, it seems like the winds of remote work has left relationships somewhat out in the cold. It’s not a lost cause. We can still carry the torch of human connection even in the remotest of workplaces. That’s the journey we are on together.

Strategies for Nurturing Relationships

Remote work is the future, we all know it. We are stepping into an era where physical workplaces are becoming optional or in some cases, non-existent. But while we’re all on this modern spaceship, let’s face it; maintaining relationships in a remote environment can be quite a challenge. But fear not, because there are practical, tried-and-true strategies to keep these connections alive and kicking.

One of the key strategies is effective communication. Since we don’t have the luxury to rely on those spontaneous water-cooler chats or after-work pub sessions, we need to work a little harder at communicating online. Adopting tools such as Slack, Zoom, or even a good old fashioned phone call can play a vital part in ensuring everyone stays on the same page. Lean into these digital meeting spaces and think of them as your new office – a place where work and social interaction coexist.

Don’t just communicate about work. Yes, you heard it right. Remote work, while effective, can sometimes turn an entire team into robots churning out tasks with minimal personal interaction. So to add humanity back into the equation, encourage sharing personal updates and developments. This is where the importance of fun and socializing comes in. Organize weekly virtual coffee breaks, game nights, or interest clubs. Everyone’s got a unique story to tell, and creating spaces for those to be shared can significantly enhance interpersonal connections.

Another approach is to recognize and respect the cultural and personal boundaries of your team members. The way we work is deeply influenced by our cultural norms and personal lives. Understanding and accommodating everyone’s unique circumstances and work requirements can lead to a more inclusive and supportive remote work environment. Remember, everyone is battling a bunch of stuff you might not see on the screen, so let’s be empathetic and patient.

One more point to note, please don’t turn a blind eye to the importance of feedback. Providing regular and constructive feedback helps to maintain the virtuous cycle of improvement and personal growth. It assures the other person that they’re seen and appreciated. So, whether it’s a thumbs-up emoji or a one-on-one video chat about how they aced a project should be part of your regular routine.

While there is no one-size-fits-all approach to nurturing relationships in the era of remote work, these strategies can serve as your starting point. It requires intention, effort, and sometimes navigating awkward waves of changes, but ultimately, it’s all about preserving the human touch in an increasingly digital world.

Fostering a Digital Company Culture

In the era of Zoom calls and Slack messages, fostering relationships with your remote work team isn’t just good business sense, it’s a survival tactic. Maintaining relationships within the remote work framework presents a whole new set of challenges and opportunities. But let’s not forget, challenges and opportunities often go hand in hand.

The notion of a shared workspace has dramatically shifted under our noses. Gone are the mundane office cubicles, replaced by digital workspaces where workers juggle tasks from the very comfort of their homes, or a quaint little coffee shop in a remote corner of Lisbon, or from a tranquil beach in Thailand. A nomadic lifestyle, once seen as implausible for a mainstream worker, is now the new trend. But amidst this evolution, building a digital company culture is an absolute necessity – it’s the glue that binds remotely dispersed teams.

Remember, “Culture is to an organisation what personality is to an individual”. Now, if our workspace is digital, our culture needs to echo comparable sentiments. This calls for a blend of compassion, adaptability and technological synchronisation.

A company is more than just a group of people working towards a shared goal. It’s a community – a tribe, making collective strides towards the common good. It’s essential to ensure everyone feels like a part of this tribe. Here are some ways to make that happen, even in a digital workspace.

Inclusion is the keyword here. Digital workspaces should have their doors open, metaphorically of course, for everyone to walk in and feel welcome. Weekly virtual team building, like a digital happy hour, or a trivia night can work wonders. Ensure there’s a sense of flexibility about the work hours, mirroring the ethos of an indie hacker, embracing life as it comes.

Openness of communication is another pillar of developing a digital company culture. Setting up channels for informal chit-chat aside from work-related discussions can clear the air and harbor a sense of belonging. Remember, it’s as much about memes and light-hearted banter as complex coding and algorithmic challenges.

Finally, regular feedback in the form of laid-back, open-ended catch-ups can foster individual growth. A company that grows together, stays together.

Utilizing Communication Platforms

In the age of remote work, harnessing the power of various communication platforms is critical to staying connected. While we’re no longer bound to cubicles and 9-5 routines, we can’t afford to let our relationships fizzle out. Keeping the line of communication open and active takes grit and a touch more intentionality. The right choice of communication platforms plays a significant role here.

First and foremost, there’s no one-size-fits-all platform. Some of us are visual creatures; we revel in Zoom calls or Google Meets, where we can see familiar faces and keep up with the nonverbal cues. Others are more at home with text-based conversations, where platforms like Slack or Microsoft Teams come into play. Then we have the hybrids, like Discord which allow for both on-the-fly text threads and spontaneous voice chat rooms.

Leveraging these platforms to maximize their potential is essential. For instance, Slack serves as a fantastic platform, not just to keep professional communication flowing, but also to nurture the water-cooler chats we sorely miss. Be it sharing memes, discussing new hikes one has discovered or collectively drooling over a new gadget, these ‘non-work’ conversations on Slack fuel camaraderie even in a remote set-up.

Utilizing Zoom or Google Meet for occasional social hangs can replicate the office banter and after-hours drinks. Virtual coffee breaks or Friday night chill sessions where work-talk is banned can not just preserve relationships but may even foster deeper bonds. The understanding that we are all in this together, trying to simultaneously juggle work, family, and personal lives, can foster a sense of empathy that may often be missing in an office ecosystem.

Platforms like Microsoft Teams and Discord host an array of utilities that can turn mundane team meetings into interactive, engaging sessions. Utilizing features like ‘together mode’ can simulate meeting environments, helping us feel less distant. Interactive elements like polls or games can also be leveraged to inject fun into work.

And then we’ve got the old faithful, email. Maintaining strong email etiquette remains crucial. While we are all buried under the daily deluge of messages, a well-crafted, respectful email can still go a long way in making someone’s day or effectively conveying thoughts.

When chosen wisely and utilized optimally, these communication platforms can become potent tools to ensure the remote work era doesn’t become an era of isolated workers. It’s about making technology work for us in our quest to keep human connections alive and thriving. Remember the words of Indie creator, Derek Sivers, “What’s obvious to you is amazing to others.” So don’t shy away from sharing, discussing, and staying connected. It’s how we’ll ride this wave and come out stronger on the other side. Let’s not forget the essence of our humanity.

Virtual Team Building Activities

In this ever-evolving digital era, where remote work has become the new norm, nurturing relationships and fostering a sense of unity can be a daunting task. But wait, let’s not hit the panic button just yet. The solution lies in the creative sphere of virtual team building activities.

Take a look at virtual happy hours. Pour yourself a drink, sit back on your comfy sofa, and log in for an hour of laughs, games, and quality chats. It’s an excellent way for team members to unwind, drop their work personas, and get to know each other on a more personal level. Plus, who doesn’t love the option of attending a social event without having to leave the peace and tranquillity of their home?

Next in line are the virtual book clubs. Call it the brainy cousin of virtual happy hours if you will. This activity does double duty by encouraging team members to adopt a healthy habit, while also allowing them to share their fascinating takes on the selected books. A book club is more than just discussing a story; it’s about understanding different perspectives and bonding over shared interests.

And no, we haven’t forgotten the fitness enthusiasts out there. Remote workout sessions have become quite the rage. There’s nothing like breaking a sweat and pushing your limits together, even if it’s on a Zoom call! It’s not only about physical health but also injecting a good dose of endorphins to keep the morale high and the work stress levels low.

And let’s try online quizzes and challenges on the lighter side, which are essentially the bread and butter of team building activities. Be it a mid-week movie trivia, Monday meme challenges, or a year-long chess tournament, the possibilities are endless and can be customized according to the team’s preferences and interests.

It’s also worth delving into more innovative corners like virtual volunteering. Team up and use your skills to contribute to a social cause. It’s a unique way to bond while ‘paying it forward’. Plus, it gives a sense of fulfilment and purpose, which are priceless in the long run.

Engaging in simple and well-organized remote activities like these not only sparks a sense of camaraderie but also forms lasting relationships among team members. Embrace the perks of going virtual with these fun-filled activities and keep the team spirit alive and kicking!

Group Chats and Check-Ins

Imagine a pulsating digital campfire, with conversations floating around, discussions sparked, and ideas being exchanged. Welcome to group chats in the remote work era. These are keeping the workforces connected and ensuring that miles apart do not mean minding apart.

*Group chats* have mushroomed as our cyberspace town squares. Think of them as a digital water cooler — a place where colleagues can discuss ideas openly, share their small wins, or even a funny GIF. Tones normalized by the top-down hierarchy are replaced with a more egalitarian and democratic atmosphere. It fosters a sense of camaraderie in a squad spread from San Francisco to Seoul.

With ‘work from anywhere’ becoming the norm, tech nomads know that maintaining relationships isn’t a Monday through Friday, nine-to-five gig. Just like their exploration of digital nomadism, they’ve adopted an Indie hacker mindset to keep their relationships kickin’.

The modern nomad also recognizes the balancing act that group chats require. These are not notification machines, nor do they mean ‘always-on’. They see it more as the human touch in the tech world – open, accessible, but never an intrusion. Hearing the *’ping’* of the message should bring about a sense of community, not dread.

*Regular check-ins* are another cornerstone in the foundation of maintaining relationships. Whether it’s one-on-one video calls or team meetups using online meeting platforms, these are the new ‘let’s grab coffee’ moments. Employees get to show more than their professional skills — they get to showcase their personality, quirks, and humanity.

Real-time interaction brings about the excitement of spontaneous conversation, the dynamism of fresh ideas, and the feeling of being a part of something bigger. Regular check-ins are the digital antidote for loneliness, keeping the worker bees connected to the hive mind.

But remember, these check-ins are not merely about status updates and tasks at hand. Like any good conversation around a campfire, there should be room for storytelling, inspiration, and shared experiences.

In essence, maintaining relationships in the remote work era isn’t about logic; it’s about emotions. It’s about connecting with the hearts of people, not just their LinkedIn profiles. Remember, in this era of distant workstations, our most vital tools won’t be our computers; they will be our group chats and regular check-ins – our collective will to keep the human in the remote work experience.

FAQ about Maintaining Relationships in the Remote Work Era

It’s funny, isn’t it? One minute, we were in the office, sipping on mediocre coffee, complaining about mundane commutes, and the next? Working remotely, where our digital connectivity vanquished geographical distance allowing us to seamlessly function. Yet, undoubtedly, remote work has its labyrinth of challenges. One of the biggest among them is maintaining relationships with your coworkers in this new, touch-and-go virtual realm.

Inundated with questions about this topic? Don’t fret. You’re not alone. Let’s grapple with some of the most frequently asked questions about maintaining relationships in the remote work era.

1. How can I feel connected to my team while working remotely?

The first thing you need to understand is getting through this requires a bit of “silver lining” kind of thinking. With tools like Slack, Microsoft Teams, or even Zoom, we can stay well-connected, touching base regularly, and most importantly, putting faces to names. Share jokes, discuss common interests, or even partake in a virtual happy hour. The aim is to spiritually and emotionally bind the team.

2. How can I improve communication with my coworkers in a remote setting?

It all boils down to openness and clarity. Be proactive in your communication. Don’t hesitate to clarify doubts. Keep your team updated about your work status. Verbalize your thoughts, worries or ideas more often. Remember, the key is to avoid miscommunication.

3. How can I build trust with my team members?

Start with delivering what you promise. Consistency and dependability are the foundational stones of trust. Also, be supportive of your team. During virtual meetings, make room for personal discussions to understand your peers’ situations better. This empathetic approach can help foster trust.

4. How can I keep my relationships from deteriorating in a remote workspace?

There’s a tool each one of us has: Active Listening. Pay attention to what your coworker is saying. Ask follow-up questions. Show empathy. This is not a race; it’s a marathon. And like every marathon, steady strides are the keys to success. Make constant efforts, one day at a time, to maintain and enhance your relationships.

This digital era is a tricky maze to navigate when it comes to maintaining relationships. Wrestling with these questions is part of the process. But remember, every one of us is figuring things out, making mistakes, and learning on the go. You’re not alone.

How to address Conflict in a Virtual Team?

In the world of remote work, conflict might seem inevitable. With varying working hours, personal interruptions, and the lack of physical interaction, arguments can sometimes sneak in through our screens. So, how do we address conflict within a team that’s sprawled across different time zones and continents?

Communication is the first step, there’s no skirting around it. The remote work era has shown us the importance of clear and concise communication more than ever before. Don’t tip-toe around disagreements; instead, confront them head-on. An email or a Skype message might be a quick way to bring up issues, but the effectiveness of such platforms is often undermined by the lack of tone and non-verbal cues.

“One cannot not communicate”, wrote psychologist and communication theorist Paul Watzlawick. Even without words, messages are relayed through your tone, punctuations, or emoticons. Use video calls for important conversations, share your screen or make use of collaboration tools.

Next, remember to listen first, and then respond. It’s natural to be defensive in a confrontation. However, letting your team members voice their concerns helps them feel heard and a part of the conversation. Encourage them to share their point of view, and express themselves fully before you step in with your thoughts. It could be as simple as a “Thanks for sharing that with me. Here’s what I think…”.

Disagreements may be uncomfortable, they’re also an opportunity for growth and learning. When conflict arises, it’s time for honest reflection. If your team itself is the source of conflict, maybe there’s something in your team culture that needs fixing. Scope out areas for training or teamwork building activities.

Lastly, patience in resolving conflicts is key. While it’s important to address conflicts swiftly to prevent them from escalating, remember that resolution takes time. This is especially true for virtual teams, where the team members might have different work hours or personal commitments. Take into account these factors and allow sufficient time for a meaningful and productive discussion.

How to foster a sense of belonging in remote teams?

Fostering a sense of belonging in remote teams is more than just a buzzword in the era of digital nomads and indie hackers. It throws a challenge straight into the heart of the typical work dynamics, but it’s a challenge worth conquering.

So, how do we bridge the gap of physical distance and cultivate a sense of unity without the water cooler discussions, or the smiles exchanged in corridors? The key here is authentic communication and bridging the digital divide.

First things first, embrace the power of video. Use video-chatting software like ‘Zoom’, ‘Skype’ or ‘Google Meet’ for your team meetings. It’s the closest parallel to face-to-face interactions and, dang it, it makes all the difference! There’s something to be said about the impact of intonation, facial expressions, and body language in fostering connections. Turn your cameras on, folks! And while we’re at it, let’s break the wall and get a bit personal. Kick off the meeting with a show and tell or, heck, even a pet parade.

Next, the art of connection extends beyond the realms of work. Invest some time in virtual team building activities. It can be an online game night, a virtual happy hour or a book club discussion. It doesn’t matter what you’re doing, as long as it’s something that’s not a work talk. It’s a fantastic way to realise that the person on the other side of that screen image is not an email id but a fellow human being with interests and quirks.

One significantly underrated aspect of fostering a sense of belonging is appreciation and acknowledgment. Virtual high-fives and shoutouts often fail to replace the impact of an actual pat on the back. But it doesn’t mean we can’t improvise. How about a Shoutout channel on your communication platforms like ‘Slack’ or ‘Teams’? And trust me, nothing gives a sense of community like a shared victory dance!

Just like Rome, a closely-knit remote team isn’t built in a day. It takes thoughtful and persistent effort. But at the end of the day, when your team clock off their laptops feeling like they’re a part of something bigger, walking the extra mile, making the extra effort? Totally worth it.

What are the best routines for Remote Team Cohesion?

In our current reality, remote work is no longer a novelty but a necessary norm, especially for folks like us who may be hopping from one city to another – or even one continent to another! So, an age-old question finds new relevance: how do you maintain relationships in the remote work era?

Well, it all boils down to adopting the right routines. For remote team cohesion, these routines are more about fostering a sense of connection and less about micromanaging.

One routine to consider is the daily check-in. Regular communication is key for remote workers and daily stand-ups ensure everyone is on the same page. This could be a morning meeting where team members share updates, goals for the day, and any roadblocks. Not just work, these check-ins also provide an outlet to share personal wins or struggles – making them much like those water-cooler conversations we miss from the office.

Then there’s the power of virtual coffee breaks. I’m sure most of you can’t function without your morning coffee, so why not turn a solo activity into something communal? No work talk, just a casual chat over a cuppa. It’s a positive routine which helps keep the team connected on a personal level and can eliminate feelings of isolation experienced by remote workers.

Another routine that can help build a strong rapport is peer recognition. It’s a short, regular routine where team members recognize the work of their peers, and it has a tremendous impact on morale. Remember, a simple ‘kudos’ goes a long way in making someone feel appreciated!

Finally, consider shared learning sessions, where team members share knowledge on a topic of their choice. Not only does this routine foster an environment of constant learning, it also gives everyone a chance to express their passion for something, may it be programming, sustainability, or baking the perfect sourdough bread!

These routines, seemingly small but significant, have the potential to convert a scattered team into a tight-knit community.

Why is maintaining Personal Relationships important in Remote Work?

In this digital nomad era, we’re no longer bound by geography. We can work from anywhere, literally anywhere with an internet connection. Some might say this is the new freedom, a new kind of liberty that our forefathers could only dream of. But with this apparent freedom comes a new set of challenges: maintaining personal relationships. You might wonder, “Why such an emphasis on these connections in this age of remote work setups?”

Well, let me tell you, my fellow hackers, these relationships matter. Heck, they might be the most essential thing ever in remote work. Why so? Because our interactions, feedback, understanding, and companionship provide invaluable emotional support that’s crucial for our wellbeing. Sounds cliché? Surely it does, but it’s the truth. The age-old saying, “no man is an island,” stands truer than ever in this remote work era.

As digital nomads, while we can set up our rig in middle of a forest, we can’t escape the reality that we’re intrinsically social creatures. We crave connections, relationships, and the sense of belonging. Without robust personal relationships, we find ourselves feeling isolated and, quite frankly, a tad out of place.

We can’t underestimate the value of a quick coffee chat over Zoom, or a shout out in the team Slack channel about the brilliant code you wrote. These are the things that make work feel less like work. They spark joy, promote team cohesion, and ultimately lead to better productivity.

But beyond that, our personal relationships give us a sense of identity and purpose. We understand our role better by bouncing ideas off our peers. We learn, grow, and mature.

So, in all its forms: partnerships, alliances, comradeships, cliques, you name it – relationships form a complex web of emotional connections that fuels our human spirit. Working remotely shouldn’t mean working in isolation. The lack of face-to-face interactions should stimulate us to work harder at maintaining and nourishing our relationships.

Stepping into the remote work setup, we must rethink the way we connect. We must embrace new avenues, new tools, and novel ways of keeping that connection alive. It’s not an add-on – it’s a prerequisite to maintaining our humanity in this otherwise robotic setup.

So, keep those chat boxes buzzing, maintain the weekly hangout sessions and make sure you remember your teammate’s birthdays. These small gestures can mean the world to someone, especially when we’re all sprinkled across the globe.

Remember, we can be digital nomads without losing touch with our fellow human beings. We can be indie hackers without forgetting the basics of human interaction and warmth.